<!doctype html> <html> <head> <title>Page title</title> </head> <body> <img src="images/company-logo.png" alt="Company"> <h1 class="hello-world">Hello, world!</h1> </body> </html>
- Don't capitalize tags, including the doctype.
- Use soft tabs with two spaces—they're the only way to guarantee code renders the same in any environment.
- Nested elements should be indented once (two spaces).
- Always use double quotes, never single quotes, on attributes.
- Don't include a trailing slash in self-closing elements—the HTML5 spec says they're optional.
- Don’t omit optional closing tags (e.g.
<!doctype html> <html> <head> </head> </html>
Enforce standards mode and more consistent rendering in every browser possible with this simple doctype at the beginning of every HTML page.
<html lang="en"> <!-- ... --> </html>
From the HTML5 spec:
Authors are encouraged to specify a lang attribute on the root html element, giving the document's language. This aids speech synthesis tools to determine what pronunciations to use, translation tools to determine what rules to use, and so forth.
IE compatibility mode
<!-- IE10 and below only --> <meta http-equiv="x-ua-compatible" content="ie=edge">
There's no need to include the Internet Explorer document compatibility
<meta> tag with IE11. This was used by IE10 and below to declare the highest compatibility mode for the deprecated browser. Microsoft Edge doesn't support document modes.
For more information, read this awesome Stack Overflow article.
<head> <meta charset="utf-8"> </head>
Quickly and easily ensure proper rendering of your content by declaring an explicit character encoding. When doing so, you may avoid using character entities in your HTML, provided their encoding matches that of the document (generally UTF-8).
Per HTML5 spec, typically there is no need to specify a
HTML5 spec links
Practicality over purity
Strive to maintain HTML standards and semantics, but not at the expense of practicality. Use the least amount of markup with the fewest intricacies whenever possible.
<a class="..." id="..." data-toggle="modal" href="#"> Example link </a> <input class="form-control" type="text"> <img src="..." alt="...">
HTML attributes should come in this particular order for easier reading of code.
Classes make for great reusable components, so they come first. Ids are more specific and should be used sparingly (e.g., for in-page bookmarks), so they come second.
<input type="text" disabled> <input type="checkbox" value="1" checked> <select> <option value="1" selected>1</option> </select>
A boolean attribute is one that needs no declared value. XHTML required you to declare a value, but HTML5 has no such requirement.
For further reading, consult the WhatWG section on boolean attributes:
The presence of a boolean attribute on an element represents the true value, and the absence of the attribute represents the false value.
If you must include the attribute's value, and you don't need to, follow this WhatWG guideline:
If the attribute is present, its value must either be the empty string or [...] the attribute's canonical name, with no leading or trailing whitespace.
In short, don't add a value.
<!-- Not so great --> <span class="avatar"> <img src="..."> </span> <!-- Better --> <img class="avatar" src="...">
Whenever possible, avoid superfluous parent elements when writing HTML. Many times this requires iteration and refactoring, but produces less HTML. Take the following example: